First, understand that a short sale may not discharge the debt. You should know whether you will still owe your lender money (a deficiency) after the short sale. You should know this before you close the sale of your home.
Even if a lender agrees to a short sale, the lender and any junior lien holders may not agree to forgive the debt entirely and may require you to pay the difference as a personal obligation. This outstanding personal obligation could result in a subsequent collection action against you. For example, a lender may accept the short sale purchase price to “release the lien” on the property but still require you to pay the full amount of the original debt. You must be certain of the terms of any short sale before making a decision. All agreements between you and the lender must be in writing. Consult an attorney regarding whether the lender is entitled to pursue collection of any deficiency. Obtain any debt forgiveness agreements with the lender in writing but be aware that the language used in these agreements can be extremely confusing and even misleading. Seek the advice of legal counsel before accepting the lender’s terms.
Second, under that a short sale may result in a higher tax debt
A short sale in which the debt is forgiven is considered a relief of debt and may be treated as income for tax purposes. The Mortgage Forgiveness Debt Relief Act of 2007 created a limited exemption to allow homeowners to pay no taxes on debt forgiveness; however, only cancelled debt used to buy, build or improve a principal residence or refinance debt incurred for those purposes qualifies for this tax exemption.
If you decide to pursue a short sale, understand that the process will likely take several months or more to complete. Consider taking the following actions.
Contact a qualified real estate professional
Interview several real estate professionals and ask about their experience in short sales, the number of short sale transactions they have handled, their education and training in short sales and inquire about any past or pending lawsuits or disciplinary actions.
Investigate documentation and eligibility
Documentation and eligibility criteria for short sales vary depending on specific lender and investor guidelines. Generally, you must prove that you are financially incapable of paying the loan. The lender will consider this when determining the costs of accepting the short sale versus foreclosing. You will have to document your financial situation. If you have funds to pay the deficiency, a lender will not necessarily allow a short sale. However, some lenders will not require you to dip into retirement accounts to fund the deficiency. These issues will have to be negotiated with your lender.
Determine the amount owed on the property
All debt and costs must be factored in before a lender can determine whether a short sale is more economical for them. The analysis will include the delinquent loan, all other recorded debt (past due homeowner’s association fees, unpaid property taxes), and the costs of a sale (closing costs, brokerage commissions, and necessary repairs). If you have more than one loan on the property, a short sale will require the approval of all lenders.
Determine the estimated Fair Market Value of the property
You must prove to the lender that the home is worth less than the unpaid loan balance plus closing costs. Consult a real estate professional or an appraiser for assistance in estimating the value of the property.
Consult legal counsel
Legal counsel can help you determine whether a short sale is the best option and can advise you during the short sale process. A short sale is a complex transaction.
Be aware of the impact on your credit score
The impact of a short sale on your credit score depends upon a variety of factors, including late or missed payments. A short sale may appear on your credit report as “pre-foreclosure redemption,” “paid in full for less than full balance” or other similar term. It is possible that a short sale will have a different impact on your credit than a foreclosure or deed in lieu of foreclosure (or any other outcome). But, beware that once you miss mortgage payments, your credit rating will be severely impacted. Some lenders will tell you that they will not consider you as a short sale candidate unless you are behind on payments. Do not intentionally withhold mortgage payments, solely for short sale consideration, without first consulting legal counsel.
Understand there may be a waiting period before you can buy another home
Your ability to qualify for a loan to purchase another home after a short sale will likely be impacted because of the impact on your credit score. It may be some time before a lender will loan you the money to purchase another home.
Home Affordable Foreclosure Alternative (HAFA) program
The HAFA program was designed to give homeowners alternatives to a foreclosure, which include incentives for completing a short sale. If your home sale can close as a HAFA transaction, you will emerge owing no deficiency. However, it can be very difficult to qualify as a HAFA transaction.